Наиболее употребительные сокращения

a.m. - ante meridiem (лат.) — во столько-то часов до пополудни

С - centigrade - по стоградусной шкале Цельсия (о температуре)

e.g. — exempli gratia (лат.) - напри­мер

etc. — et cetera (лат.) — и т. д.

hr. — hour — час

i.e. — id est (лат.) — другими словами

kg. - kilogram - килограмм

lb. — pound — фунт

L — litre — литр

m. — metre — метр

mi. — mile — миля

mill. — minute — минутка

NB - nota bene (лат Наиболее употребительные сокращения.) - pay attention— направьте внимание, заметьте

p.m. — post meridiem (лат.)полудня

s. — second — секунда

t. - ton - тонна

vs- versus (лат.) - против

w. — watt — ватт

X-rays — Roentgen rays - рентгенов­ские лучи

a.с. [alternating current] —переменный ток

amp. [ampere] —ампер

B.D.C. [bottom dead centre] - нижняя мертвая точка

b.h.p. [brake horsepower] - эф­фективная тормозная мощность

C.-I. engine Наиболее употребительные сокращения [compression-ignition engine] — движок с воспламе­нением от сжатия, дизель

c.с./сu. cm. [cubic centimetre] —кубический сантиметр

cu. in. [cubic inch] —кубический дюйм

cu. ft. [cubic foot] -кубический фут

wt. [hundredweight] —центнер

d.c. [direct current]— неизменныйток

F. [Fahrenheit] — по шкале Фарен­гейта (о температуре)

f.p.m. [feet per minute] — футов в ми­нуту

f Наиболее употребительные сокращения.p.s. [feet per second] —футов в се­кунду

ft.-lbs. [foot-pounds] —футо-фунты

gal. [gallon] —галлон

g.p.m. [gallon per minute] -галлон за минуту

hp [horsepower] - лошадиная сила

in. [inch] - дюйм

k.p.h. [kilometers per hour] - км в час

lb [pound] —фунт

lb.-ft. [pound-foot] -фунто-фут

m.p.g. [miles per gallon Наиболее употребительные сокращения] —число миль пробега на галлон горючего

m.p.h. [miles per hour] -миль в час

n.h.p. [nominal horsepower] — номинальная мощность в л.с.

n.t.p. [normal temperature and pre­ssure] — обычные температура и давление

o.a.d. [overall dimension] — габарит­ный размер

psi. [pounds per square inch] - фунтов на кв Наиболее употребительные сокращения .дюйм

r.p.m. [revolutions per minute] — об/мин

sq. ft. [square foot] — квадратный фут

t.d.c. [top dead centre] - верхняя мертвая точка

v. [velocity] — скорость

vol. [volume] — объем


Unit One

Упражнение 8

1-b; 2-c; 3-b; 4-a; 5-b.

Упражнение 18

1-14; 2-18; 3-23;4-7;5-17;6-21;7-1; 8-12; 9-10;10-2;11-19;12-3; 13-4;14-15; 15-6; 16-13;17-5;18-16;19-8; 20-22; 21-9; 22-20;23-11.

Упражнение 22

1. I study at the automobile department of a technical college Наиболее употребительные сокращения.

2. After graduating from the college I’ll become a specialists un automobile industry.

3. In my opinion every specialists should know that the automobile must undergo laboratory and road tests.

4. These tests are needed in order for the automobile to meet up-to- date demands.

5.The modern automobile must Наиболее употребительные сокращения have the following qualities: rapid acceleration, smooth-acting clutch, silent gearbox, dependable braking and steering systems, ease of driving.

6. The automobile engine must also have low fuel consumption and be ecological.

Unit Two

Упражнение 5

1-4;2-6;3-7;4-1;5-2;6-5; 7-3.

Упражнение 6

1.The automobile consists of three basic parts: the engine, the chassis and the body.

2.The engine is Наиболее употребительные сокращения the source of power.

3.The engine includes fuel, lubricating and electrical systems.

4.The chassis comprises the power train, running gear, steering and braking systems.

5.The power train(power transmission), in turn, consists of the clutch, gearbox, cardan shaft, final drive, differential, rear axle and axle shafts.

6. The running gear Наиболее употребительные сокращения includes frame with axles, wheels and springs.

7.The body had hood, fenders and accessories: heater, windshield wipers, stereo type recorder, conditioner and so on.

Упражнение 13

1-13;2-19;3-25;4-2;5-8;6-5;7-16;8-1;9-11; 10-20;11-3;12-21;13-7; 14-14;15-4; 16-17;17-6;18-24; 19-10;20-9;21-23;22-12;23-15;24-18;25-22.

Упражнение 15

1-b; 2-d;3-a;4-c;5-d;6-c.

Unit Three

Упражнение 6

1-a; 2-a; 3-b; 4-a; 5-d; 6-b.

Упражнение 7

1-b; 2-a;3-b;4-c;5-a.

Unit Four

Упражнение Наиболее употребительные сокращения 8

1-i; 2-b;3-g;4-h;5-f; 6-d; 7-e; 8-a;9-c.

Unit Five

Упражнение 9

1. The frame provides support for the body: engine and power train members.

2.It consists of longitudinal and cross members that reinforce the frame.

3.The frame has to withstand vibrations, twists and other strains.

4. The frame may be of two Наиболее употребительные сокращения types: conventional frames and unibody constructions.

5. Conventional frames are мейд of steel channel sections welded or reverted together.

6. Frameless constructions are мейд integral with the body.

7.The frame is insulated from the body by rubber pads in order to prevent noise and vibrations from passing to the passengers Наиболее употребительные сокращения of the car.

Unit Six

Упражнение 6

1-c; 2-b; 3-b;4-b; 5-b.

Упражнение 12

1-9; 2-16; 3-1; 4-41; 5-11; 6-3; 7-2; 8-15; 9-4;10-7; 11-12; 12-6;13-10;14-8; 15-13; 16-5.

Упражнение 14

1. The clutch is a friction device.

2.The clutch connects the engine and the gearbox.

3. The clutch is located between the flywheel and the gearbox.

4.As a rule the clutch consists of two discs: the driven disc and the Наиболее употребительные сокращения pressure one.

5. The clutch is controlled by the clutch pedal.

6.When the clutch pedal is at the clutch discs are engaged and the running engine is connected to the gearbox and wheels.

7. When the driver pushes down on the clutch pedal the discs are apart, the clutch is disengaged Наиболее употребительные сокращения and the engine runs idly.

Unit Seven

Упражнение 5

1-3; 2-4; 3-1; 4-2; 5-5.

Упражнение 6

1. The gearbox is designed for changing the speed of the car movement.

2.The gearbox provides for forward speeds and one reverse.

3. Gearboxes can be as follows: sliding-mesh type, constant –mesh type and epicyclic (planetary) type.

4.The sliding-mesh type Наиболее употребительные сокращения is the simplest one.

5.The constant –mesh is the most widely used type.

6. The sliding gears on the gearbox shaft are designed for providing the forward speeds and the reverse drive.

Unit Eight

Упражнение 6

1-5; 2-11; 3-1; 4-6; 5-2; 6-10; 7-3; 8-4; 9-7; 10-9; 11-8.

Упражнение 7

1-4; 2-5; 3-1; 4-3; 5-2.

Упражнение 8

1.Brakes are the most important mechanisms of the car.

2. They are used to slow or Наиболее употребительные сокращения stop the car.

3. Brakes can be divided into two types, namely: drum brakes and disc brakes.

4. Most cars use hydraulic or pneumatic driving system.

5. The brakes are applied when the driver pushes down on the brake pedal.

1. Brakes are used to slow or stop the car.

2. Depending on the Наиболее употребительные сокращения drive brakes are classified as: mechanical, hydraulic, air, or electric brakes.

3. Brakes are controlled by the brake pedal.

4.Brakes are applied when the driver pushes down on the brake pedal (brake shoes are pressed against the brake drums).

5. In air brakes compressed air is used to apply the Наиболее употребительные сокращения braking force.

6. Electric brakes use electromagnets to provide the braking effort.

7. Up-to –date cars are equipped with all-wheel brakes.

Unit Nine

Упражнение 8

1-5; 2-3; 3-6; 4-4; 5-2; 6-1.

Упражнение 9

1. To guide the car it is necessary to have the steering system.

2. The steering gear assembly incorporates: steering wheel, steering column, gearing, pitman arm, steering knuckle Наиболее употребительные сокращения arms and ball joints, levers and tie rods.

3. There are different steering gears, namely: rack and pinion type, recirculating ball type, and worm and sector type.

4. When the driver turns the steering wheel to the left or right, the steering mechanism causes the pitman arm to turn to the left Наиболее употребительные сокращения or right.

5. This movement is carried by the tie-rods to the steering knuckle arms and wheels, causing them to turn to the left or right.

Unit Ten

Упражнение 5

1. Many modern automobiles are equipped with onboard computer systems for better automobile operation.

2. The program of such a computer Наиболее употребительные сокращения has only two memories: read only memory (ROM)and random access memory (RAM).

3.The computer software tells the computer what to do, and when to do it in a specific sequence.

4. The program is stored in a permanent memory.

5.The microprocessor contains a ROM and a RAM.

6. Some computers have the Наиболее употребительные сокращения ability to learn. This is referred to as an adaptive memory.